2019年考研英语二真题答案解析

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Section I Use of English
  Directions:
Read the following text. Choose the best word (s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)
Weighing yourself regularly is a wonderful way to stay aware of any significant weight fluctuations.   1  , when done too often, this habit can sometimes hurt more than it   2  .
As for me, weighing myself every day caused me to shift my focus from being generally healthy and physically active to focusing   3  on the scale. That was had to my overall fitness goats. I had gained weight in the form of muscle mass, but thinking only of   4  the number on the scale, I altered my training program. That conflicted with how I needed to train to   5  my goals.
I also found that weighing myself daily did not provide an accurate   6   of the hard work and progress I was making in the gym. It takes about three weeks to a month to notice any significant changes in your weight   7   altering your training program. The most   8   changes will be observed in skill level, strength and inches lost.
For these   9  , I stopped weighing myself every day and switched to a bimonthly weighing schedule   10  . Since weight loss is not my goal, it is less important for me to  11  my weight each week. Weighing every other week allows me to observe and   12   any significant weight changes. That tells me whether I need to   13   my training program.
I use my bimonthly weigh-in   14  to get information about my nutrition as well. If my training intensity remains the same, but I’m constantly   15  and dropping weight, this is a   16  that I need to increase my daily caloric intake.
The   17  to stop weighing myself every day has done wonders for my overall health, fitness and well-being. I’m experiencing increased zeal for working out since I no longer carry the burden of a   18  morning weigh-in. I’ve also experienced greater success in achieving my specific fitness goals,   19   I’m training according to those goals, not the numbers on a scale.
Rather than   20   over the scale, turn your focus to how you look, feel how your clothes fit and your overall energy level.
1.[A]Besides          [B]Therefore          [C]Otherwise         [D]However
2.[A]helps             [B]cares                [C]warns               [D]reduces
3.[A]initially         [B]solely               [C]occasionally      [D]formally
4.[A]recording              [B]  lowering         [C]explaining  [D]accepting
5.[A]modify          [B]set                    [C]review              [D]reach
6.[A]definition       [B]depiction          [C]distribution      [D]prediction
7.[A]due to            [B]regardless of     [C]aside from        [D]along with
8.[A]orderly          [B]rigid                 [C]precise              [D]immediate
9.[A]claims           [B]judgments         [C]reasons             [D]methods
10.[A]instead         [B]though              [C]again                [D]indeed
11.[A]track            [B]overlook           [C] conceal          [D]report
12.[A]depend on    [B]approve of        [C]hold onto       [D]account for
13.[A]share           [B]adjust               [C]confirm            [D] prepare
14.[A]results          [B]features            [C]rules                 [D]tests
15.[A]bored           [B]anxious             [C]hungry             [D]sick
16.[A]principle             [B]secret               [C]belief               [D]sign
17.[A]request                [B]necessity           [C]decision            [D]wish
18.[A]disappointing       [B]surprising         [C]restricting         [D]consuming
19.[A]if because            [B]unless               [C]until                 [D]consuming
20.[A]obsessing            [B]dominating       [C]puzzling           [D]triumphing
1-20参考答案及解析:

1. [答案] 【D】 However
      [解析] 此处是逻辑关系考点。空格前面说到定期称重可以帮助我们关注自身体重的明显变化,这是正面描述,但是空格后面说的是负面描述,我们可以从词汇hurt上面感觉到语气的转变,所以,我们这里选择D,However(然而). 所给的答案中[A]Besides(除此之外),[B] Therefore(因此), [D]Otherwise(否则),意思都不符合题意。
2. [答案] 【A】helps
      [解析] 此处是考查词义复现。空格所在的句子的意思是说:这种习惯的坏处有时候要比...多,很明显想表达的意思是弊大于利,所以空格处应该写表示利的同义词,这里所给的答案中,A helps(有帮助)复合题意,其他[B]cares(关心),[C] warns(警告),[D] reduces(减少)带入句中都不符合题意。
3. [答案] 【B】solely
   [解析] 此处是词汇考查。空格所在的句子的意思是:每天称重会让我转译注意力到体重的数值上,而不是宽泛的身体健康上。此处和后面的4题的数值也很匹配,所以答案是B solely表示仅仅。而其他答案[A] initially(最初地)[B]solely(仅仅地)[C]occasionally(偶尔地) [D] formally(正式地)都不合题意。
4. [答案] 【B】lowering
   [解析] 此处是词义辨析题。空格所在的句子的意思和上文3空格的意思想对应,我虽然体重增加是由于肌肉的增强,但是我所想的是体重秤上的数字增大了,所以会关注怎样把数字降下来,所以这里应该选择是B(lowering)降低的意思。 其他选项[A]recording(记录)       [C]explaining(解释)  [D]accepting(接受)都不能表达此意。
5. [答案] 【D】reach
   [解析] 此处是固定搭配题。达到目的是reach the goal这句话的意思是:上面的关注点的改变和我为了达到目的锻炼身体的计划相违背。和目标goal相匹配的是reach。 其它选项[A]modify(修改)[B]set(设立)[C]review(复习)都不符合题意。
6. [答案] 【B】depiction
   [解析] 此处是词义辨析题。空格所在的句子在这段话的首句,和上段是并列的位置,我们可以从用词also看出其中的逻辑。所以这段话说的是这个关注点改变的不利方面。空格前面是精准的(accurate), 后面应该是数值显示的意义,所以这里B 答案depiction (描述)是复合题意的。其它选项[A]definition(定义)[C]distribution(分配)[D]prediction(预测)都不符合题意。
7. [答案] 【A】due to
   [解析] 此处是短语辨析题。看空格所在句子的意思是:由于计划的调整,三个星期到一个月后,我才发现我的体重有明显的变化。[A]due to表示因为,复合题意。其他三个选项[B]regardless of(尽管)[C]aside from(除了)[D]along with(随着)带入句子都通顺,所以不入选。
8. [答案] 【D】immediate
   [解析] 此处是词义辨析题。这句话的意思是:最明显的改变将会体现在技能水平,力量和尺寸三个方面。其他三个选项[A]orderly(有顺序的)[B]rigid(严肃的)[C]precise(精准的)和后面changes 搭配都不符合句意。
9. [答案] 【C】reasons
   [解析] 此处是固定搭配辨析题。由于这个原因(For these judgments),我停止了每天称重并且改为每月两次称重的频率。其它选项:[A]claims(要求,索赔),[B]judgments(判断),[D]methods(方法)带入都不符合题意。
10. [答案] 【A】instead     
   [解析] 此处是词义辨析题。空格所在的句子是在描述两个不同的现象,所以有取代关系,我们选择A instead表示取而代之,复合题意,其它选项    [B]though(尽管),[C]again(又再)[D]indeed(确实)都不符合题意。
11. [答案] 【A】track 
   [解析] 此处是词义辨析题。空格所在句子的意思是:因为降体重不再是我的目标,所以每周都跟踪我的体重就变得不再重要。所以我们选择A track表示的是跟踪。其它选项:[B] overlook  (忽视)[C] conceal(隐藏)[D] report(报道)都不符合题意。
12. [答案] 【D】account for      
   [解析] 此处是逻辑和固定搭配辨析题。这句话的意思是:每隔两周称重可以使我观察到明显变化并会找到变化的原因。所以我们选择D account for 表示解释的意思。其它选项:[A]depend on    (依据),[B]approve of(同意)[C]hold onto(坚持)都不符合题意。
13. [答案] 【B】adjust
   [解析] 此处是词义辨析题。这里根据上文说的每两周称重的好处,下面的句子是说这一切可以告诉我何时调整我的锻炼计划。根据选项,我们可以找到B adjust 调节是正确的选择项。其他选项:[D]prepare(准备)[A]   share(分项)[C] confirm(断言)都不符合题意。
14. [答案] 【A】results
   [解析] 此处是词义辨析题。 根据句子尾部的as well, 我们可以知道这句话的意思是对上一段的延续,表达的是:我利用我的体重增加的数量可以了解我的营养摄入情况。所以这里选择A results 表达增重的结果。其它选项[B]features(特点)[C]rules(规则)[D]tests(实验)都不符合题意。
15. [答案] 【C】hungry
   [解析] 此处是词义辨析题。这句话主要是承接上文说到的营养摄入,所以我们选择C hungry 表示饥饿,和后面体重下降也有因果逻辑关系。其它选项: [A]bored(烦闷的),[B]anxious(焦虑的),[D]sick(有病的)都不符合题意。
16. [答案] 【D】sign
   [解析] 此处是词义辨析题。空格所在的句子表达的意思是:上面的现象是一种迹象,题型我需要增加日常的卡路里的摄入,和上文讲到的营养摄入相呼应。其它选项:[A]principle(原则)[B]secret(秘密)[C]belief(信仰)都不符合题意。
17. [答案] 【C】decision
   [解析] 此处是词义辨析题。空格前面有定冠词,所以此处应该是名词,这句话表达的意思是称重计划的改变对我自身已经有了明显的效果。Wonders是个积极面的词汇,所以这件事情已经发生了,选择C decision 是最符合题意的。 其它选项:[A]request(要求),[B]necessity(必要性),[D]wish(愿望)都不符合题意。
18. [答案] 【A】disappointing
   [解析] 此处是词义辨析题。空格处应该是形容词,修饰后面的morning, 这句话的意思是说:我不再担心早上会增加体重,之前只要发现增加体重就会感到失望,所以我们选择A  disappointing(令人失望的)。其它选项:       [B]surprising(令人惊奇的),[C]restricting(限制性的)[D]consuming(浪费的)都不符合题意。
19. [答案] 【A】because
   [解析] 此处是词义辨析题。空格前后的逻辑关系是因果关系,句意是:因为我根据我的目标而不是数值锻炼身体,所以我成功取得了健身的效果。所以A because表示原因复合题意。其他选项:[B]unless(除非)[C]until  (直到)[D] if(如果)都不符合题意。
20. [答案] 【A】obsessing

   [解析] 此处是词义辨析题。空格所在的句子rather than的意思是而不是,所以后面应该是关注体重数值,所以,我们选择A obsessing 表达的意思是沉迷于,这句话的意思是:与沉迷于数值不同,把关注点放在自我感受,衣服的宽松和整体的能量上才是更好的。 其它选项[B]dominating (统治的)[C]puzzling(迷惑的)[D]triumphing(成功的)都不符合题意。 
Section II Reading Comprehension

Part A
Directions:
Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A,B,C or D.Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET.(40 points)
Text 1
Unlike so-called basic emotions such as sadness, fear, and anger, guilt emerges a little later, in conjunction with a child’s growing grasp of social and moral norms. Children aren’t born knowing how to say “I’m sorry”; rather, they learn over time that such statements appease parents and friends—and their own consciences. This is why researchers generally regard so-called moral guilt, in the right amount, to be a good thing.
In the popular imagination, of course, guilt still gets a bad rap. It is deeply uncomfortable—it’s the emotional equivalent of wearing a jacket weighted with stones. Yet this understanding is outdated. “There has been a kind of revival or a rethinking about what guilt is and what role guilt can serve,” says Amrisha Vaish, a psychology researcher at the University of Virginia, adding that this revival is part of a larger recognition that emotions aren’t binary—feelings that may be advantageous in one context may be harmful in another. Jealousy and anger, for example, may have evolved to alert us to important inequalities. Too much happiness can be destructive.
And guilt, by prompting us to think more deeply about our goodness, can encourage humans to make up for errors and fix relationships. Guilt, in other words, can help hold a cooperative species together. It is a kind of social glue.
Viewed in this light, guilt is an opportunity. Work by Tina Malti, a psychology professor at the University of Toronto, suggests that guilt may compensate for an emotional deficiency. In a number of studies, Malti and others have shown that guilt and sympathy may represent different pathways to cooperation and sharing. Some kids who are low in sympathy may make up for that shortfall by experiencing more guilt, which can rein in their nastier impulses. And vice versa: High sympathy can substitute for low guilt.
In a 2014 study, for example, Malti looked at 244 children. Using caregiver assessments and the children’s self-observations, she rated each child’s overall sympathy level and his or her tendency to feel negative emotions after moral transgressions. Then the kids were handed chocolate coins, and given a chance to share them with an anonymous child. For the low-sympathy kids, how much they shared appeared to turn on how inclined they were to feel guilty. The guilt-prone ones shared more, even though they hadn’t magically become more sympathetic to the other child’s deprivation.
“That’s good news,” Malti says. “We can be prosocial because we caused harm and we feel regret.”
21.Researchers think that guilt can be a good thing because it may help______.
A)regulate a child's basic emotions
B)improve a child's intellectual ability
C)foster a child’s moral development
D)intensity a child's positive feelings
22.According to paragraph 2, many people still consider guilt to be______.
A)deceptive
B)burdensome
C)addictive
D) deception
23. Vaish hold that the rethinking about guilt comes from an awareness that______.
A)emotions are context-independent
B)emotions are socially constructive
C)emotional stability can benefit health
D)an emotion can play opposing roles
24. Malti and others have shown that cooperation and sharing _______.
A. may help correct emotional deficiencies
B. can result from either sympathy or guilt
C. can bring about emotional satisfaction
D. may be the outcome of impulsive acts
25. The word “transgressions” (Line 4, Para.5) is closest in meaning to _______.
A. teachings
B. discussions
C. restrictions

D. wrongdoings
21-25参考答案及解析:

21.     【答案】[C]  foster a child’s moral development
【解析】根据题干Researchers think that guilt can be a good thing because it may help______.内容定位到第一段最后一句This is why researchers generally regard so-called moral guilt, in the right amount, to be a good thing. 由最后一句的this指代词,可知原因在第一段的前几句,根据第一句Unlike so-called basic emotions such as sadness, fear, and anger, guilt emerges a little later, in conjunction with a child’s growing grasp of social and moral norms. 和第二句Children aren’t born knowing how to say “I’m sorry”; rather, they learn over time that such statements appease parents and friends—and their own consciences. 可知内疚不是天生的,而是和一个孩子的道德规范有关,是通过后天学习获得的。因此答案是C 选项 foster a child’s moral development。
22.     【答案】[B]  burdensome
【解析】根据题干According to paragraph 2, many people still consider guilt to be______.定位到第二段第一句In the popular imagination, of course, guilt still gets a bad rap. 另外第二句It is deeply uncomfortable—it’s the emotional equivalent of wearing a jacket weighted with stones. 也进一步解释了第一句。由这两句可知许多人认为内疚是不好的,令人不舒服的,让人感觉沉重,就像是衣服口袋里有石头一样,因此答案为B选项burdensome。
23.     【答案】[D]  an emotion can play opposing roles
【解析】根据题干Vaish hold that the rethinking about guilt comes from an awareness that______.中的关键词Vaish定位到第二段第四句,根据第四句中的adding that this revival is part of a larger recognition that emotions aren’t binary—feelings that may be advantageous in one context may be harmful in another. 可知这种复兴是更大的认识的一部分,即情绪不是二元情感,在一个情境中有利的情绪,在一个情景中可能是有害的。其中第4句中的revival和题干中的rethinking对应,第四句中的recognition和题干中的awareness对应,因此答案是D 选项 an emotion can play opposing roles。
24.     【答案】[B]  can result from either sympahty or guilt
【解析】根据题干Malti and others have shown that cooperation and sharing _______. 定位到第四段第三句 In a number of studies, Malti and others have shown that guilt and sympathy may represent different pathways to cooperation and sharing. 根据第三句可知内疚和和同情可能代表了通往合作和分享的不同的路径。可以得出,答案是B 选项can result from either sympahty or guilt。
25.     【答案】[D]  wrongdoings

【解析】根据题干中的关键词transgressions可以定位到第五段第二句Using caregiver assessments and the children’s self-observations, she rated each child’s overall sympathy level and his or her tendency to feel negative emotions after moral transgressions. 根据第二句中的 feel negative emotions after moral transgressions. 可以看到negative emotions 来源于transgressions. 而negative emotions表示负面情绪是贬义的,因此对比4个选项,可以得出答案是D选项wrongdoings.  
Text 2

Forests give us shade, quiet and one of the larder callenges in the fight against climate change. Even as we humans count on forests to soak up a good share of the carbon dioxide we produce, we are threatening their ability to do so. The climate change we are hastening could one day leave us with forests that emit more carbon than they absorb.
Thankfully, there is a way out of this trap-but it involves striking a subtle balance. Helping forests flourish as valuable “carbon sinks” long into the future may require reducing their capacity to absorb carbon now. California is leading the way, as it does on so many climate efforts, in figuring out the details.
The state’s proposed Forest Carbon Plan aims to double efforts to thin out young trees and clear brush in parts of the forest. This temporarily lowers carbon-carrying capacity. But the remaining trees draw a greater share of the available moisture, so they grow and thrive, restoring the forest’s capacity to pull carbon from the air. Healthy trees are also better able to fend off insects. The landscape is rendered less easily burnable. Even in the event of a fine, fewer trees are consumed.
The need for such planning is increasingly urgent. Already, since 2010, drought and insects have killed over 100 million trees in California, most of them in 2016 alone, and wildfires have burned hundreds of thousands of acres.
California plans to treat 35,000 acres of forest a year by 2020, and 60,000 by 2030- financed from the proceeds of the state’s emissions- permit auctions. That’s only a small share of the total acreage that could benefit, about half a million acres in all, so it will be vital to prioritize areas at greatest risk of fire or drought.
The strategy also aims to ensure that carbon in woody material removed from the forests is locked away in the form of solid lumber or burned as biofuel in vehicles that would otherwise run on fossil fuels. New research on transportation biofuels is already under way.
State governments are well accustomed to managing forests, but traditionally they’ve focused on wildlife, watersheds and opportunities for recreation. Only recently have they come to see the vital part forests will have to play in storing carbon. California’s plan, which is expected to be finalized by the governor next year, should serve as a model.
26. By saying “one of the harder challenges,” the author implies that _______.
A. global climate change may get out of control
B. people may misunderstand global warming
C. extreme weather conditions may arise
D. forests may become a potential threat
27. To maintain forests as valuable “carbon sinks,” we may need to _______.
A. preserve the diversity of species in them
B. accelerate the growth of young trees
C. strike a balance among different plants
D. lower their present carbon-absorbing capacity
28. California’s Forest Carbon Plan endeavors to _______.
A. cultivate more drought-resistant trees
B. reduce the density of some of its forests
C. find more effective ways to kill insects
D. restore its forests quickly after wildfires
29. What is essential to California’s plan according to Paragraph 5?
A.To handle the areas in serious danger first.
B.To carry it out before the year of 2020.
C.To perfect the emissions-permit auctions.
D.To obtain enough financial support.
30. The author’s attitude to California’s plan can best be described as _______.
A. ambiguous
B. tolerant
C. supportive
D. cautious
26-30参考答案及解析:
26.     【答案】[D]  forests may become a potential threat
【解析】根据题干By saying “one of the harder challenges,” the author implies that _______.定位到原文第一段第一句,但是我们发现第一段只提到了one of the harder challenges,而没有给出harder challenges指什么,也就是没有给出本题的答案,因此我们需要看第一句后面的句子。第一句是中心句,后面的句子是对第一句进行阐述,根据后面的句子的阐述,我们可知尽管我们人类依靠森林来吸收大量的二氧化碳,但是我们造成的气候变化将会使我们的森林最终会释放的碳比吸收的碳还要多。也就是D选项所说的森林可能会成为潜在的威胁。因此答案为D选项。
27.     【答案】[D]  lower their present carbon-absorbing capacity
【解析】根据题干 To maintain forests as valuable “carbon sinks,” we may need to _______.定位到原文第二段第二句Helping forests flourish as valuable “carbon sinks” long into the future may require reducing their capacity to absorb carbon now. 其中may require 后面的内容就是题干问的内容。原文说为了使森林成为有价值的长期的碳汇,可能需要减少他们现在吸收碳的能力。浏览选项发现D选项 lower their present carbon-absorbing capacity 降低他们现在的碳吸收能力和原文一致,因此D 选项是正确选项。
28.     【答案】[B]  reduce the density of some of its forests
【解析】根据题干 California’s Forest Carbon Plan endeavors to _______. 定位到原文三段第一句The state’s proposed Forest Carbon Plan aims to double efforts to thin out young trees and clear brush in parts of the forest.该句大意为森林碳计划的目的是大力减少小树并在森林的部分地方除掉灌木丛。B选项为减少他的森林的密度,因此B选项是正确选项。
29.     【答案】[A]  To handle the areas in serious danger first
【解析】根据题干 What is essential to California’s plan according to Paragraph 5? 定位到原文第五段第二句 That’s only a small share of the total acreage that could benefit, about half a million acres in all, so it will be vital to prioritize areas at greatest risk of fire or drought第二句中的 so it will be vital to prioritize areas at greatest risk of fire or drought. 含义为:重要的是要优先考虑火灾和干旱风险大的地区,A选项意为首先处理处于有严重危险的地方,因此答案为A选项。
30.     【答案】[C]  supportive

【解析】题干为 The author’s attitude to California’s plan can best be described as _______. 原文最后一句 California’s plan, which is expected to be finalized by the governor next year, should serve as a model.指出加利福尼亚的计划应该会起到模范作用,由此可知作者对加利福尼亚州计划的态度是支持的。浏览选项可知C选项supportText 3

American farmers have been complaining of labor shortages for several years. The complaints are unlikely to stop without an overhaul of immigration rules for farm workers.
Congress has obstructed efforts to create a more straightforward visa for agricultural workers that would let foreign workers stay longer in the U.S. and change jobs within the industry. If this doesn’t change, American businesses, communities, and consumers will be the losers.
Perhaps half of U.S. farm laborers are undocumented immigrants. As fewer such workers enter the country, the characteristics of the agricultural workforce are changing. Today’s farm laborers, while still predominantly born in Mexico, are more likely to be settled rather than migrating and more likely to be married than single. They’re also aging. At the start of this century, about one-third of crop workers were over the age of 35. Now more than half are. And picking crops is hard on older bodies. One oft-debated cure for this labor shortage remains as implausible as it’s been all along: Native U.S. workers won’t be returning to the farm.
Mechanization isn’t the answer, either—not yer, at least. Production of corn, cotton, rice, soybeans, and wheat has been largely mechanized, but many high-value, labor-intensive corps, such as strawberries, need labor. Even dairy farms, where robots do a small share of milking, have a long way to go before they’re automated.
As a result, farms have grown increasingly reliant on temporary guest workers using the H-2A visa to fill the gaps in the workforce. Starting around 2012, requests for the visas rose sharply; from 2011 to 2016 the number of visas issued more than doubled.
The H-2A visa has no numerical cap, unlike the H-2B visa for nonagricultural work, which is limited to 66,000 a year. Even so, employers complain they aren’t given all the workers they need. The process is cumbersome, expensive, and unreliable. One survey found that bureaucratic delays led the average H-2A worker to arrive on the job 22 days late. The shortage is compounded by federal immigration raids, which remove some workers and drive others underground.
In a 2012 survey, 71 percent of tree-fruit growers and almost 80 percent of raisin and berry growers said they were short of labor. Some western farmers have responded by moving operations to Mexico. From 1998 to 2000, 14.5 percent of the fruit Americans consumed was imported. Little more than a decade later, the share of imports was 25.8 percent.
In effect, the U.S. can import food or it can import the workers who pick it.
 
31.  What problem should be addressed according to the first two paragraphs?
A. Discrimination against foreign workers in the U.S.
B. Biased laws in favor of some American businesses.
C. Flaws in U.S. immigration rules for farm workers.
D. Decline of job opportunities U.S. agriculture.
32. One trouble with U.S. agricultural workforce is       .
A. the rising number of illegal immigrants
B. the high mobility of crop workers
C. the lack of experienced laborers
D. the aging of immigrant farm workers
33.What is the much-argued solution to the labor shortage in U.S. farming?
A. To attract younger laborers to farm work.
B. To get native U.S. workers back to farming.
C. To use more robots to grow high-value crops.
D. To strengthen financial support for farmers.
34. Agricultural employers complain about the H-2A visa for its        .
A. slow granting procedures
B. limit on duration of stay
C. tightened requirements
D. control of annual admissions
35. Which of the following could be the best title for this text?
A. U.S. Agriculture in Decline?
B. Import Food or Labor?
C. America Saved by Mexico?
D. Manpower vs. Automation?
31-35参考答案及解析:
31.     【答案】[C]  Flaws in U. S. immigratinon rules for farm workers.
【解析】题干为What problem should be addressed according to the first two paragraphs?原文第一段第三句The complaints are unlikely to stop without an overhaul of immigration rules for farm workers.可知如果不修改农场工人的移民法规,这种抱怨不太可能会停止。因此可以得出目前需要解决的一个问题是修改农场工人的移民法规。C选项意为美国农场工人移民法规的缺陷需要解决,和原文含义一致因此C选项为正确选项。
32.     【答案】[D]  the aging of immigrant farm workers
【解析】题干为One trouble with U.S. agricultural workforce is       .原文第三段倒数第二句 And picking crops is hard on older bodies. 可知农作物的活对于老人来说困难,而本句话的前几句提到美国的农场工人年龄上涨,现在一多半人是35岁以上的人,因此可知美国农场劳动力的一个问题是农场工人老龄化。D选项为移民农场农人的老龄化,因此D选型为正确选项。
33【答案】[B]  To get native U.S. workers back to farming.
【解析】根据题干What is the much-argued solution to the labor shortage in U.S. farming?中的关键词much-argued solution 定位到原文第三段最后一句 One oft-debated cure for this labor shortage remains as implausible as it’s been all along: Native U.S. workers won’t be returning to the farm. [B] 选项 To get native U.S. workers back to farming. 和该句属于同义替换,因此答案为B选项。
34【答案】[A]  slow graning procedures.
【解析】根据题干Agricultural employers complain about the H-2A visa for its        .定位到原文第六段第二句 Even so, employers complain they aren’t given all the workers they need. 但是我们发现该句只提到了农场雇主抱怨 H-2A visa 的事实,而并没有给出题干所问农场雇主抱怨 H-2A visa 的原因,而第三句The process is cumbersome, expensive, and unreliable. 提到这个过程是耗时的、昂贵的并且不可靠的。点名了农场主抱怨的原因,A选项含义为缓慢的颁发流程,因此A选项为正确选项。
 
35【答案】[B]  Import Food or Labor?
【解析】题干为Which of the following could be the best title for this text?问的是本文最好的标题属于主旨题。原文首先提到美国农场存在缺乏农场工人的问题,之后讨论了一些解决方法,并指出这些解决方法不可取,目前比较有效的方法是H-2A签证给临时农场工人,但是H-2A签证颁发的流程慢,需要解决,最后指出美国人需要进口食物或者工人。因此可知本文最好的标题应该是B选项Import Food or Labor?“进口食物或者劳动力?”
ive支持为正确答案。 
Text 4

Amold Schwarzenegger. Dia Mirza and Adrian Grenier have a message for you. It’s easy to beat plastic. They’re part of a bunch of celebrities starring in a new video for World Environment Day—encouraging you, the consumer, to swap out your single-use plastic staples like straws and cutlery to combat the plastics crisis.
The key messages that have been put together for World Environment Day do include a call for governments to enact legislation to curb single-use plastics. But the overarching message is directed at individuals.
My concern with leaving it up to the individual, however, is our limited sense of what needs to be achieved. One their own, taking our own bags to the grocery store or quitting plastic straws, for example, will accomplish little and require very little of us. They could even be detrimental, satisfying a need to have “done our bit” without ever progressing onto bigger, bolder, more effective actions—a kind of “moral licensing” that allays our concerns and stops us doing more and asking more of those in charge.
While the conversation around our environment and our responsibility toward it remains centered on shopping hags and straws, we’re ignoring the balance of power that implies that as “consumers” we must shop sustainably, rather than as “ citizens” hole our governments and industries to account to push for real systemic change.
It’s important to acknowledge that the environment isn’t everyone’s priority-or even most people’s. We shouldn’t expect it to be. In her latest book, Why Good People Do Bad Environmental Things. Wellesley College professor Elizabeth R. DeSombre argues that the best way to collectively change the behavior of large numbers of people is for the change to be structural.
This might mean implementing policy such as a plastic tax that adds a cost to environmentally problematic action, or banning single-use plastics altogether. India has just announced it will “eliminate all single-use plastic in the country by 2022.” There are also incentive-based ways of making better environmental choices easier, such as ensuring recycling is at least as easy as trash disposal.
DeSombre isn’t saying people should stop caring about the environment. It’s just that individual actions are too slow, she says, for that to be the only, or even primary, approach to changing widespread behavior.
None of this is about writing off the individual. It’s just about putting things into perspective. We don’t have time to wait. We need progressive policies that shape collective action (and rein in polluting businesses), alongside engaged citizens pushing for change.
36. Some celebrities star in a new video to
A. demand new laws on the use of plastics
B. urge consumers to cut the use of plastics
C. invite public opinion on the plastics crisis
D. disclose the causes of the plastics crisis
37.The author is concerned that “moral licensing” may
A. mislead us into doing worthless things
B. prevent us from making further efforts
C. weaken our sense of accomplishment
D. suppress our desire for success
38. By pointing out out identity “citizens”, the author indicates that
A. our focus should be shifted to community welfare
B. our relationship with local industries is improving
C. We have been actively exercising our civil rights
D. We should press our government to lead the combat
39. DeSombre argues that the best way for a collective change should be
A. a win-win arrangement
B. a self-driven mechanism
C. a cost-effective approach
D. a top down process
40. The author concludes that individual efforts
A.can be too aggressive
B. can be too inconsistent
C. are far from sufficient
D. are far from rational
36-40参考答案及解析:
36. 【答案】B. urge consumers to cut the use of plastics
【解析】根据题干的关键词“some celebrities star in a new video”回文定位首段的第三句话,即“They are part of a bunch of celebrities starring in a new video for World Environment Day—encouraging you, the consumer, to swap out your single-use plastic staples like straws and cutlery to combat the plastic crisis.”意思是“鼓励消费者减少使用一次性塑料制品,从而对抗塑料危机”。仔细观察四个选项,我们发现选项B中的 “urge”一词与原文中的“encourage”一词属于同义替换,“cut the use of plastics”与原文中的 “swap out your single-use plastic staples”意思一致,所以正确答案即为B选项。
37. 【答案】B. prevent us from making further efforts
【解析】题干中问作者担忧“moral licensing”可能如何,利用引号中的关键词定位,回到文章第三段最后一句,“they could even be detrimental, satisfying a need to have “done our bit”without ever progressing onto bigger, bolder, more effective actions—a kind of “moral licensing” that allays our concerns and stops us doing more and asking more of those in charge.”意为“他们没有采取更大、更明显、更有效的措施...”,仔细观察选项,只有选项B中的”prevent us from making further efforts”,即“妨碍我们进一步的行动”,故而正确答案为B选项。
38. 【答案】D. We should press our governmental to lead the combat.
【解析】根据题干中的关键词“By pointing out our identity as “citizens”, the author indicates that     ”,我们可以定位到原文中的第四段,因为该段只有一句话,所以根据关键信息我们只需要理解后半句 “rather than as “citizens”hold our governments and industries to account to push for real systematic change”,意即“而不是作为“市民”,去推动我们的政府和行业去做出真正的系统性的改变”。意思就是作者希望政府自发作出改变来应对当下的情形,反观选项,只有D选项表达出这一层含义,“我们应该施压于政府使其主导这场斗争”。故而正确答案是D选项。
39. 【答案】D. a top down process
【解析】根据题干中的定位信息“DeSombre”以及“the best ways for a collective change”我们可以定位到文中的第五、六段,“Elizaberth R. DeSombre... for the change to be structural”,大意为这个教授认为集体性的改变大多数人行为最好的方法就是使其变成结构性的,第六段进一步从市民和政府的角度,阐述了这种结构化的改变。对比选项,只有D选项“自上而下的过程”最为符合。
40. 【答案】C. are far from sufficient

【解析】根据题干信息以及解题的顺序原则,我们很快定位到最后一段,“None of this is about writing off the individual. It’s just about...We need progressive policies that shape collective action(and rein in polluting business), alongside engaged citizens pushing for change”。这段话都是作者的观点,作者认为当下时间紧迫,我们需要改变看问题的角度,需要更为进步的政策来推动集体行动以及热心的市民参与进来,单靠个人的努力远远不够,这与C选项中的“远远不够”同义替换,故而正确答案是C选项。 
Part B

Directions:
You are going to read a list of headings and a text. Choose the most suitable heading from the list A-G for each numbered paragraph(41-45). Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET.(10 points)
Five ways to make conversation with anyone
In choosing a new home, Camille McClain’s kids have single demand: a backyard.
McClain’s little one aren’t the only kids who have an opinion when it comes to housing, and in many cases youngsters’ views weigh heavily on parents’ real estate decisions, according to a 2018 Harris Poll survey of more than 2,000 U.S. adults.
While more families buck an older-generation proclivity to leave kids in the dark about real estate decisions, realty agents and psychologists have mixed views about the financial, personal and long-term effects kids’ opinions may have.
The idea of involving children in a big decision is a great idea because it can help them feel a sense of control and ownership in what can be an overwhelming process, said Ryan Hooper, clinical psychologist in Chicago.
“Children may face serious difficulties in coping with significant moves, especially if it removes them from their current school or support system,”he said.
Greg Jaroszewski, a real estate brokers with Gagliardo Realty Associates, said he’s not convinced that kids should be involved in selecting a home—but their opinions should be considered in regards to proximity to friends and social activities, if possible.
Younger children should feel like they’re choosing their home—without actually getting a choice in the matter, said Adam Bailey, a real estate attorney based in New York.
Asking them questions about what they like about the backyard of a potential home will make them feel like they’re being included in the decision-making process, Bailey said.
Many of the aspects of homebuying aren’t a consideration for children, said Tracey Hampson, a real estate agent based in Santa Clarita, Calif. And placing too much emphasis on their opinions can ruin a fantastic home purchase.
“Speaking with your children before you make a real estate decision is wise, but I wouldn’t base the purchasing decision solely on their opinions.”Hampson said.
The other issue is that many children-especially older ones-may base their real estate knowledge on HGTV shows, said Aaron Norris of The Norris Group in Riverside, Calif.
“They love Chip and Joanna Gaines just as much as the rest of us,” he said. “HGTV has seriously changed how people view real estate. It’s not shelter, it’s a lifestyle. With that mindset change come some serious money consequences.”
Kids tend to get stuck in the features and the immediate benefits to them personally, Norris said.
Parents need to remind their children that their needs and desires may change over time, said Julie Gurner, a real estate analyst with FitSmallBusiness.com.
“Their opinions can change tomorrow,”Gurner said.“Harsh as it may be to say, that decision should likely not be made contingent on a child’s opinions, but rather made for them with great consideration into what home can meet their needs best-and give them an opportunity to customize it a bit and make it their own.”
This advice is more relevant now than ever before, even as more parents want to embrace the ideas of their children, despite the current housing crunch.
  A.remarks that significant moves may pose challenges to children.
41.Ryan Hooper B.says that it is wise to leave kids in the dark about real estate decisions.
42. Adam Bailey C. advises that home purchases should not be based only on children’s opinions.
43. Tracey Hampson D. thinks that children should be given a sense of involvement in homebuying decisions.
44. Aaron Norris E. notes that aspects like children’s friends and social activities should be considered upon homebuying.
45.Julie Gurner F. believes that homebuying decisions should be based on children’s needs rather than their opinions.
  G. assumes that many children’s views on real estate are influenced by the media.
41-45参考答案及解析:
41. [A] remarks that significant moves may pose challenges to children
解析:首先我们通过Ryan Hooper可以定位到原文第四段Ryan的观点句“The idea of involving children in a big decision is a great idea because it can help them feel a sense of control..”因此很容易就选到D选线。但是通过后面的解题,我们会发现这个选线更适合做42题的答案。因此我们需要重新定位线索句,我们可以看到第五段也是他的观点,“Children may face serious difficulties in coping with significant moves,...”与选线A 可进行同义替换,因此,41题的正确答案为A。
42. [D] thinks that children should be given a sense of involvement in homebuying decision
解析:通过Adam Bailey定位到原文第七段与第八段。“Young children should feel like they’re choosing their home...decision making process”这一部分内容都是D选项的同义替换。因此,42题的正确答案为D。
43. [C] advises that home purchases should not be based only on children’s opinions
解析:根据人名Taccey Hampson定位到原文第九段,段首句与段尾句均为线索句。段首句“Many of the aspects of homebuying aren’t a consideration for children”与选项C可进行同义替换,表达了说话者所持的否定观点,考生千万要注意选项中的否定词not。因此43题的正确答案为C。
44. [G] assumes that many children’s views on real estate are influenced by the media
解析:根据人名Aaron Norris定位到十一段“The other issue is that many children...may based their real estate knowledge on HGTV shows.”,我们能看到关键词“HGTV shows”它能与G选线的“the media”进行同义替换,两者属于上下义词逻辑。因此,44题的正确选线为G。
45. [F] believes that homebuying decisions should be based on children’s needs rather than their opinions.

解析:根据人名Julie Gurner定位到十四段,“Parents need to remind their children....change over time”到第十五段句末“but rather made for them with great consideration into what home can meet their needs best.”在这一部分信息中,转折连接词“but rather”以及名词“the needs”都是关键信息,刚好对应了F选线“children’s needs rather than their opinion”。
Section Ⅲ Translation

46.  Directions:
Translate the following text into Chinese. Write your translation neatly on the ANSWER SHEET. (15 points)


It is easy to underestimate English writer James Heriot. He had such a pleasant, readable style that one might think that anyone could imitate it. How many times have I heard people say “I could write a book. I just haven’t the time.” Easily said. Not so easily done. James Herriot, contrary to pupular opinion, did not find it easy in his early days of, as he put it, “having a go at the writing game”. While he obviously had an abundance of natural talent, the final, polished work that he gave to the world was the result of years of practising, re-writing and reading. Like the majority of authors, he had to suffer many disappointments and rejections along the way, but these made him all the more determined to succeed. Everything he achieved in life was earned the hard way and his success in the literary field was no exception.
46参考答案及解析:
我们很容易低估英国作家吉米·哈利。他的作品秉承一种令人愉快的,易读的风格,以至于有人认为任何人都可以模仿。很多次我听到人们说:“我能写一本书,我只是没有时间。”说来容易,做来难。与大家所想的相反,早年吉米·哈利发现写作并非易事,正如他所言“尝试写作游戏”。尽管很显然他极具写作天赋,但他呈现给世界的最终出版作品也是历经多年练习,重写与阅读的结果。与大多数作家一样,一路走来,他经历了多次的失望与拒绝,但这一切使他更坚定了获得成功的决心。他生命中获得的成就源于他的艰苦努力,他在文学领域的成功绝非偶然。
 
【解析】第一句中,“It”属于形式主语,代指后面的“underestimate English writer James Herriot”。在翻译的过程中“It is easy to”可翻译为“人们(或人们)很容易...”。“Easily said. Not easily done”按照汉语的习惯,翻译为“说来容易,做来难”即可。后半部分的翻译,大家需要额外注意定语的处理“the final, published work that he gave to the world was the results of ...”这个句子的主干时“the work was the result of...”“he gave to the world”属于定语从句,修饰与限定“the final, published work”。最后一句“no exception”,直译表示“不是例外”,我们也可意译为“他在文学领域的成功绝非偶然。”
Section IV Writing
Part A
47. Directions: Suppose you have to cancel your travel plan and will not be able to visit professor Smith, write him an email to
Suppose Professor Smith asked you to plan a debate on the theme of traffic. Write him an email to
1) Suggest a specific topic with your reasons, and
2) Tell him about your arrangements.
You should write about 100 words on the ANSWER SHETE.

Do not use your one name. Use “Li Ming” instead. (10 points)
47.【作文范文】

Dear Prof. Smith,  
It’s my pleasure to plan the debate on city traffic, and I am writing mainly to put forward advice on the topic of this debate and introduce my preliminary arrangements concerned. 
To begin with, the debate can be conducted with the topic of “By Bus or By Bike” on the ground that a host of residents prefer convenient vehicles to reduce time cost under the background of increasingly heavy city traffic. Therefore, the participants in this debate can take an active part in it due to their real experience in daily life. Regarding the arrangements of the debate, it will be held in the auditorium on our campus Dec.28th,2018. Anyone interested in this debate can apply for participation at the Students’ Union Office before Dec. 24th. Finally, a watch will be awarded to the winner of the debate.   
It will be highly appreciated if you could give me an early reply or some comments on my plan.
                                                    Yours sincerely,
                                                          Zhang Wei
参考范文译文
尊敬的史密斯教授,
非常荣幸能够组织这次有关城市交通的辩论。我写信来主要是提议这次辩论的主题并介绍有关此次辩论的初步安排。
首先,这次辩论可以围绕“开车还是骑车”展开,因为在城市交通日益拥堵的背景下, 很多人更喜欢便捷的交通方式以节约时间成本。因此,这次辩论的参与者可以根据日常生活中的实际经验积极参与到辩论中来。关于这次辩论的安排:举办时间为2018年10月28日,地点在我校礼堂;获奖者会得到一块手表。
如果您给早日回复我或者给我提一些建议和意见,我会非常感激。
     您真诚的,
张伟                                                                                                                                                                                                             
【作文点评】
首先,从形式来讲,2019考研英语(二)小作文的出题形式基本和历年真题保持一致,给出一个简要的指导,且依旧延续了历年小作文两点提纲的风格。但是,不变中蕴含的却是变化,参加过考试的考生肯定在考场上就发现,2019考研英语(二)小作文的署名发生了变化,由“李明”换回了“张伟”。这又缘何说起呢?简要回顾2010年到2018年考研英语(二)小作文的署名,我们发现,从2010年到2012年,署名均以“张伟”的形式出现;之后从2012年到2018年,除却2015年的通知,均要求以“李明”署名结束。然而,2019再次换回“张伟”,这就提醒广大考生,考场上一定要仔细审题,不能放过题目中的任何信息,否则都会造成失分。

其次,从难易程度上来看,2019考研英语(二)基本也和历年真题持平。题目是围绕一个有关城市交通的辩论展开的话题,具体来说就是一位史密斯教授让“你”制定一个有关城市交通主题辩论的计划,并写出你对整场辩论的安排。“城市交通”是贴近考生生活的话题,所以,针对这一话题,广大考生不用担心缺乏行文思路,导致难以落笔。其次,有关辩论的安排,仔细分析,跟2013年以及2015年考研英语(二)小作文有相似之处。2013年是关于慈善义卖活动的电子邮件,2015年是招募志愿者的夏令营的通知,涉及活动必然要求写明活动起止时间、持续时间以及活动地点,所以,认真备考过的考生在写第二点提纲时可以借鉴2013年和2015年背过的句式及表达进行写作。不过,从另一方面来看,2019考研英语(二)小作文可能困扰考生的地方在于“debate”一词,该词对基础扎实的考生构不成威胁,但对于基础薄弱的学生可能是致命一击,所以,单词是考研英语备考的基石,文都教育的1575词汇书还得是广大考生备考的必选书目。此外,另一个需要注意的点便是“arrangement”一词,该词是可数名词,通常使用复数,若考生在行文中提出多点安排,必须使用该词的复数形式“arrangements”。 
Part B

48. Directions: Write an essay based on the chart below. In your writing, you should
1) interpret the chart, and
2) give your comments
You should write about 150 words on the ANSWER SHEET. (15 points)

某高校2013年和2018年本科毕业生去向统计
48.【作文范文】
The graph shows that changes in the choices of graduates of a certain university in fives time from 2013 to 2018. According to the bar charts, a significant portion of students sought employment after graduation, this portion accounts 68% in 2013 and dropped slightly to 60% in 2018. And a modest portion of graduates wanted to pursue further education, with the number grew sightly from 26% to 34% in five years time. Of the three choices, setting up a company was obviously the minority’s choice. as it is shown, only 1.3% choose to start a business and the figure rose to 2.6% at the end of the period.
The reasons behind might be as follows. Most students would prefer to find a job so that they could gain the skills and experience that are crucial for a brighter career path; Besides, most jobs only require that applicants have bachelor degree so most graduates are qualified. Despite of that, the competition for well-paid jobs is still fierce, accompanied with universities’ policy to expand the number of postgraduates,  more students choose to pursue higher degree. At last, it is very challenging to start a businiess for graduates who lack the resources and experience, so that number was very small. With more favorable conditions provided by government to encourage high-technology start-ups, some graduates were willing to take the opportunity to become entrepreneurs.
Overall, from 2013 to 2018, majority of students found employment after graduation and the number fell slightly. A smaller number choose to pursue higher degree, and the smallest number choose to start a business, though the last two groups saw a light growth.
参考范文译文
柱状图显示了在2013年到2018年间某高校学生毕业之后选择的变化。绝大部份学生选择毕业之后找工作,2013年,这部分占了68% 到了2018年略有下降,降到了60%。 毕业之后选择继续深造的人数居中,并略有上升,从26%上升到34%,毕业后选择创业的人数最少,但也有上升趋势, 从1.3%上升到2.6%。
背后的原因是,大部分选择工作,这样能够获得技能和经验,为以后职业道路铺路;另外大多数岗位对学历的要求是本科学位,大多数人都能够满足这个要求。但是由于好的岗位竞争仍然激烈,所以选择深造的人数虽没有第一类多,但是还是有所上升。第三类人数最少,因为创业需要资源和经验,要求很高,但是有政府的鼓励创业的政策,还是有更多的人投入到创业当中,但是人数仍然是三者当中最少的。
综上所述,毕业工作的人最多,人数略有下降,深造的居中创业的人最少。
【作文点评】
在描述柱状图的时候,需要描写增加或者减少,同时还要描写趋势和状态,接下来给大家提供一些如何描写这些变化的句子。
表示增减的动词:increase, go up, rise, soar up /decrease, decline, dwindle, reduce.
开头的句子:
1.the number data show---used at the beginning of the introduction or body paragraph
2.the first...shows .... while the second... shows ---used at the beginning of the introduction when there are two sets of data.
3.the number of ... follows a remarkably similar trend---used at the beginning of a body
paragraph to provide an overview when two ore more sets of data display similar trends
描述趋势的句子:
4.increased through out the period from.. to .. implies that the graph is linear

5.the number /amount of ...varied form

文章来源:2019年考研英语二真题答案解析